Medical Laboratory Science

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The Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science of Madonna University was established as a department in the year 2000/2001 Academic Session with 21 students as its first intake under the pioneer headship of Prof. E.A. Nwokoro.  This was sequel to the approval from the University Senate. The Department then was relocated to Elele Campus of the University.

Courses in Medical Laboratory Science are offered under seven disciplines:  Chemical Pathology/Toxicology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion Science, Histopathology/Cytology, Medical Microbiology/Mycology, Immunology/Molecular Biology, Parasitology/Medical Entomology and Medical Virology. The programme is designed too to teach the students the central role laboratory investigation of components of biological fluids, blood, urine, cerebro-spinal fluid, secretions excretions, tissues or organs play in the diagnosis, management and prognosis of disease states. They are taught also to understand the workings of laboratory instruments and how to modify them where possible.



BIO 111: General Biology 1 (3 units)

Cell structures and organization, plant and animal cells, functions of cellular organelles, diversity and characteristics of living things. General reproduction, mitosis, meiosis, abnormalities associated with gene crossing, heredity and evolution.. Concept of ecology and types of habitats, diversity of plants and animals. Food chains and food webs, interrelationship of organism. Elementary biochemistry of carbohydrates, protein, lipids and nucleic acids.

BIO 113: Basic Genetics (3 units) 

Heritable and non-heritable characteristics, Quantitative inheritance, variation in genome structure. Aspect of human genetics, pedigree analysis, gene interaction, mutagenesis. Sex determinations,  linkages and sex silages.

BIO 122: General Biology 11 (3 unit)

Ecology, ecosystems, biotic and abioticfactors, interrelationship between animals and plants, adaptation of plants and animals to their environments. Types of population dynamics, static, climax communities, types and factors affecting them. Edaphic factors, rainfall, wind relative humidity, light intensity etc. Modification of the natural ecosystem.

BIO 123:   Basic Practical Biology

Testing for the presence of food substances; diffusion and osmosis experiments; Observation of cells and tissues of selected plants and animal species; Investigations on physiological processes affecting photosynthesis; Observation of mitosis in onion bulb; Observation of cyst and ova of parasitic worms; Observation of fungi hyphae; Observation of bacteria cells; Preparation of microscopic slides; Basics of photometry; colorimetry, chromatography, electrophoresis.

BIO 124 Basic Parasitology 3 units

The ecological basis, nature, origin and features of parasitism. Kinds and habitats of parasites. Concept and definition of hosts. Ecology ad geographical distribution of animal parasites. Survey of parasitic protozoa. Classification, biology and life cycles, transmission, epidemiology, pathogenic mechanisms, treatment and control. Review of parasitic worms and nematodes; their classification, functional morphology, life cycles, geographical distribution, epidemiology, pathogenesis, treatment and control; Medical entomology, diseases causing arthropods, classification, life cycles, transmission and control.

CHM 111: Basic Principles of Inorganic Chemistry (2 units)

Atomic structure and periodic table, Development of configuration of elements. Stoichometry and mode concepts. Electronic theory of atoms and valence. Chemical bonding. Formulary and IUPAC basic nomenclature of compounds, Concept of matter, Laws of chemical combination by mass. Wave theory, principle of quantum mechanics. Periodictable and periodicity of fundamental properties. Hydrogen, Nuclear chemistry and Radioactivity and its application. General study groups to emphasize periodicity. Selected transition elements

CHM 113: Basic Principles of Physical Chemistry (2 units)

Structure of solid. Kinetic theory of gases and gas laws. Colligative properties of dilute solutions. Raout’s law, Henry’s law and Molecular weight determination. Thermo chemistry and Hess’s law. Chemical Equilibrium. Law of mass action, reaction rate and chemical energetics. Electrochemistry. Ionic equalibria. Theory of acids bases and indicators. Catalysis. Ionics. Phase equilibrium, one and two component system. Enthalpy entropy and free energy.

CHM 117: Basic Practical Chemistry 1 (1 unit)

The theory and practice of simple volumetric and qualitative analysis e.g. Acid-base complexometric and redox titrations. Simple organic preparations, reaction of functional groups, laboratory safety and techniques in the laboratory

CHEM. 122 General Chemistry III (2 units.)

Historical survey of the development and importance of organic chemistry, IUPAC nomenclature and classification of organic compounds. Homologous series. Elemental analysis and molecular formula. Structural isomerism. Isolation and purification methods. The concepts of functional groups, resonance and aromatocity. Electronic theory in organic chemistry.  A brief study of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons. Cyclihydrocabons, alcohols, alkylhalides, esters, aldehydes and ketones, carboxylic acids, amines and aromatic compounds. Comparison of phenols, arylhalides and aromatic amines with their aliphatic analogs. Common synthetic polymers and their uses, introduction to oils and fats and stereo isomerism.

CHM 127:  Basic Practical Chemistry 11 (1 unit)

Qualitative analysis of inorganic salts. Physical determination e.g. boiling point, melting point. Inorganic preparations and enthalpy changes etc

MTH 111: Elementary Mathematics 1 (3 units)

MTH 122: Elementary Mathematics 11 (3 units)

The course consists of geometric representation of vectors in 1 – 3 dimensions, components direction Cosines; Addition of scalar, multiplication of vectors; Linear independents; Scalar and vector products of two vectors; differential and integration of vectors.

PHY 111: Basic Principles of Physics (3 Units)

Mechanics, thermal physics and properties of matters:

1.             Mechanics:

Scalars and vectors: Addition and resolution of vectors: Rectilinear motion and Newton’s law of motion. Inertial mass and gravitational mass: free fall; projectile motion: defecting forces and circular motion. Newton’s law of gravitation; potential well; special case of circular motion. Momentum and the conservation of a momentum. Work, power energy for a gravitational field and elastic and elastic bodies.

2.             Thermal Physics and Properties of Matters:

Temperature, heat, work, heat capacities; second law, Carnot cycle, thermodynamic ideal gas temperature scale. Thermal conductivity, radiation, black body and energy spectrum, Stelan’s law.

Kinetic model of gas: Equation of state, concept of diffusion means free path, molecular speeds. Avogadro’s number, behaviour of real gases.

A model for a solid; Crystalline structure; Model for matter inter-particle forces in solids, liquids and gases.

PHY 113: Basic Practical Physic (1 unit )

This laboratory based course emphasis qualitative measurement.  The treatment of measurement and graphical analysis. A variety of experimental techniques will be employed. The experiments include studies of matters; the Oscilloscope; mechanical systems; electrical and mechanical resonant system, light; heat; viscosity e.t.c. covered in PHY. 111/112

PHY 122:  General Physics 11 (3 units)

This course covers Electrostatics induction; Coulomb law; Gauss law. Electric field; electrostatic potential, capacitance; dielectric; electric current; circuits; analysis; alternating current; electromagnetic waves; particle duality; the Bohr theory of the hydrogen atom; nuclear properties, radioactive decay; nuclear fission and fusion; elementary particles theory.

CSC 121: Introduction to Computer             (3 Units)

The meaning of computer; Origin; classification; Analog; Digital and Hybrid. Types of digital computer: mainframe, mini and microcomputer; Models of digital computers; modes of computer operations. The generation of computer types. The meaning of a programme and a “job”. The two levels of computer soft software: The high level and low level. The computer and the language level. The computer and the language levels. Examples of systems software: interpreters, compliers and transistors. The functions of system software. The function units of a digital computer. Example of application software: Lotus 1 -2 -3, Dbase 111 plus word star perfect etc. Data processing centers, criteria for using computer. Types of computer interfaces. The two main types of line printers. As example of non-impact printer, the laser printers, computer viruses: causes. Detection and preventive measures.

GES 111: Use Of English  and Library 1 (2 units)

The basic objective of the course, use of English, is to prepare students to acquire certain language skills to succeed in their courses and in the society. The course teaches ability to read, comprehend, interpret, summarize materials from various registers and styles reflecting various disciplines or subject of study; ability to apply the knowledge of the structure, vocabulary, idioms oral forms and general patterns of the English language:

  • · Paragraph Writing, Coherence and Unity,

GES 122 Use of English 11 (2 units)

Each unit covers 2 weeks work.

GES 113: Nigerian People & culture (2 units)

This course will emphasize on the social issue of current significant and their impact on individuals / groups etc, concepts, sociological schools of thought, family formation processes, cultural practices and the health of the individual / community e.g. FGM, Child labour etc, Roles classifications.

GES 116 Logic:  & Philosophy (2 unit)

Etymological & predecessorial conception of philosophy, philosophy modes and methods, major branches of logic, logic & language, induction & deduction, fallacies, categorical proposition and categorical syllogism.

MLS 211 Introduction To Medical Laboratory Science 1(3 units.)

General introduction to medical laboratory sciences subjects namely: Clinical chemistry, Hematology and blood transfusions medical microbiology histopathology, and immunology. Specimen collection, reception and registration, storage disposal, specimen bottles, safety precautions in pathology laboratories against radiation hazards. Sterilization: Principles and techniques of chemical and physical methods. Glassware cleaning, care and maintenance. Handing of laboratory animals.

MLS 221 Introduction To Medical Laboratory Science II (4 units).

Microsocopy and Microtomy: Uses and care of microsocopes, Refrigeration and freeze-dryers-principles, uses, care and maintenance. Handling of laboratory animals, Laboratory location and floor plan, Laboratory organization and management. Simple presentation of volumetric analysis, urinalysis etc. Principles of principles of tissues preservation; fixation, processing and staining. Handling of surgical and autopsy specimens. Removal of formation pigments, basic tools of the microbiologist-wire loop, cotton wool, pipettes, swabs and their uses. Preparation of films and basic staining techniques gram’s stain, ziehl nelson’s stain. Haematological stains-principles and components. Blood film preparation and staining, pipettes, chambers–care and uses. Hb and Pcv estimation, WBC counting.

MLS 222 Introduction To Medical Laboratory Science III (2 units).

Safety precautions in the Medical Laboratory – Chempath, Medical Microbiology, History Heamatology, General Precautions for Staff – An Employee’s Health Program, Handling Cultures, Wash-up and disposal of specimen and culture. Safely measures in the design of Medical Laboratory, Animal house.

PIO 201 General Principles Of Physiology (2 units.)

Introduction and history of physiology. Structure and function of cell membranes with emphasis on transport across cell membranes with emphasis on transport across cell membranes. Biophysical principles: Osmosis, diffusion, active transport, homeostasis and control systems.

PIO 212 Respiratory Physiology  ( 2 Units.)

The respiratory tracts: Structure and function:  Pulmonary gas exchange, mechanics of respiration, compliance surfactant, lung volumes and capacities uptake and delivery of respiratory gasses with reference to O2 and Co2 transport. Pulmonary function tests. Response to hypoxia, high altitude, exercises etc. artificial respiration chemical and neural control of respiration. Organization and structure of the aorta and large arteries and arterioles as resistance vessels, capillaries as sites of tissue fluid exchange.

PIO 224 Cardiovascular Physiology (3 units).

The heart: Properties and functions of cardiac muscle, regulation of heart rate and cardiac output. Basoreceptors and control of arterial blood pressure. Regional circulation, heart brain, haemorrhage, exercises, posture, altitude.

PIO 231 Excitable Tissue ( 2 units)

Structure and classification of muscles, excitation and contraction theories and principles involved in muscle contraction, resting membrane and action potentials. Generation of impulse in excitable tissue, nerve and neuromuscular transmission. Simple reflex and spinal reflexes.

PIO 242 GIT and Biliary Physiology (2 units.)

Gastrointestinal tract, innervations and visceral sensations of the gut, mobility and sensations. GIT hormones pancreatic and biliary secretions and adoptability to absorption of carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acid, fat, water, mineral etc. liver function test. The nephron, urine formation and urinalysis. Urine concentration. ADH and osmolality. Acid base balance micturation, endocrine function of the kidney. Reproductive system.

PIO 262 Renal Physiology (2units)

Fluid compartments of the body. Macroscopic, microscopic and ultra structure of the kidney. Functions of the kidney, Mechanism of thirst, Glomerular filtration, clearance, tubular re-absorption and secretion. Renal blood flow. Body fluids and electrolyte balance. Buffer mechanisms and pH regulation.

ANT 214 Gross Anatomy II (Abdomen, Pelvis, Perinium) 3 units).

(Head and Neck, CNS) 

Head and neck: Scalp and face, removal of the brain, cranial nerve, orbit, triangles of the neck-posterior, anterior, sub occipital, parotid region, intratemporal fossa, neurovascular bundles, nasal cavity, oral. Cavity, pharynx, lymphatic drainage. Osteology of bones of skill and cervical vertebrae: General Nervous Systems (GNS):Neuroanatomy: Brain stem, cerebellum and cerebrum, spinal cord including ascending descending pathways, motor cortex, cranial nerves. Pathways for hearing, smell and vision.

Abdomen: Anterior abdominal wall including muscles, blood, vessels and nerves. Abdominal incisions: Inguinal carnal and hermias, Peritoneum, stomach, small and large intestines, liver and biliary apparatus, pancreas and spleen, Kidneys and suprarenal glands, posterior abdominal wall.

Pelvic and Perineum: Osteology of the pelvis, Pelvic diaphragm; anal region, unegenital region, external genitalia and femal urinary bladder, Seminal vesicles and prostate, Female internal genitalia.

ANT 215: Gross Anatomy 1  (Upper And Lower  limb and thorax (3 Units)

Upper Limb

Shoulder Bones and Joints, Muscles, Axils and Blood vessels, bronchial lymph nodes and mammary gland, Arm: Humerus and Elbow Joint, blood vessels, nerves, muscles. Forearms: Bones, radio ulna joint, muscles, blood vessels and nerves. Hand: Bones, wrist and joints of the hand, muscles, blood vessels and nerves.

Lower Limb

Thigh – Femur and hip joint, lumber and sacral plexuses, anterior compartment, muscles, blood vessels and nerves, femoral triangle; Medical compartment – muscles, blood vessels and nerves. Gluteal Region: muscles, blood vessels and nerves, Posterior compartment: Muscle, blood vessels and nerves, knee joint. Leg: Osteology of tibia and fibula, anterior- lateral compartment: Muscle, blood vessels and nerves. Posterior compartment: Muscle, blood vessels and nerves Foot: Ankle joint, other joints, Arches of the foot, Muscle, blood vessels and nerves

Thorax: Thoracic Skeleton: Bones and joints; Thoracic Muscles. Blood vessels. Nerves and Diaphragm; Thoracic age mechanic; Lungs and pleura Madiastinum: Superior and anterior; Middle (Heart and pericardium.

ANT 217 Histology Practical (1 unit)

Practical classes on the topics covered.

ANT 227 Histology (3 units.)

Introduction to the cellular system of the body; introduction to the primary tissues of the body; Epithelium, connective tissues, muscles, nerves blood and skeletal tissues

BCH 211: Introductory Biochemistry (3 Units)

Historical perspectives of biochemistry; the living cell; organization and molecular architecture, types of cells and their characteristics. The structure, size and functions of organelles. Bimolecular and the origin of life. The structural units of macromolecules – structures and functions of amino acids, monosaccharide, glycerol, fatty acids and nitrogenenous bases; inorganic synthesis of building units. Chemistry of amino acids, proteins and their directives. Measuring techniques in biochemistry – cell fractionation, chromatography (paper, thin layer, column, HPLC etc); calorimetry, spectrophotometry etc. Classification and hierarchical organization of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of proteins (with samples); determination and biochemical applications of the structures. The physical and chemical properties of water; acidity and alkalinity, pH, pOH. pKa, pKb values and their effect on cellular activities; buffer solutions – preparations of buffer solutions. The nature, classification and function of enzymes; introduction to enzyme kinetics.

BCH 224 General Biochemistry I1 (3 units.)

Nutritional requirements and disorders, biochemical functions of trace elements. Liposoluble vitamins, hydro soluble vitamins; coenzyme structure and functions.

MLS 311 Medical Lab. Science Ethics (2 units.)

History and philosophy of ethics in the practices of medical laboratory science. Relationship between religion and socio-cultural values on medical ethics. Ethical issues involved in private practice. Relationship between the medical laboratory scientist and his patient blood donor. Relationship between the medical laboratory scientist and other members of the health team. Intraprofessional auditing. Medical laboratory sciences ethics and consultancy services. Elements of informed. Consent in research. Relationship between proper dressing, personal comportment and patient care – the psychologist’s view. Medical laboratory sciences ethics as it affects paternity disputes, infertility studies, sexually transmitted diseased, etc. Real case presentations, medico legal aspects of medical laboratory practice.

MLS 313 Medical Physics (3 units)

Kinematical and mathematical problems – circulation and pulse, blood pressure and volume changes. The heart and blood surface tension effect. Temperature and heart flow. Electricity, electrocardiogram, general radiation linear energy transfer and radiation measurement, radiation damage-etection and safety. X-ray gene-reaction and application, radioisotopes production, use and disposal.

MLS 315 Introduction To Medical Cytology (2 Units.)

Collection, selection and preparation of cytology.  (Specimen cervical smear, vaginal smear, bronchial aspirates ascetic fluids and other fluids). Cytology staining cells. Cornification index, maturation index progesterone/androgen effect.

MLS 316 Lab Posting (3 Units).

Posting of students to all sections of routine medical laboratories for on the job training under the supervision of qualified medical laboratory scientist. Close scoring of performance data cords.

MLS 321 Biomedical Engineering 3 Units.

Principle of applied and general electronics and the mechanics of electrical circuits. Fault finding, care and maintenance of common electrical equipment in laboratory use.  Workshop practice, principles of use. Maintenance and repair of common apparatus and laboratory equipment. D.C currents and resistors, capacitors, potentiometers, and resistance boxes. Galvanometers and AVO meters. Solenoid, rheostat and transformers. Thermostats, semiconductors and rectifiers filters, photomultiplier tubes and santillators. Improvise techniques, improvement on existing equipment, review and modification of laboratory methods.

MLS 322 Medical Lab. Science Instrumentation (4 Units).

Micrometry, designs and thermostatic controls of incubators, water baths and oven principles, care and use of the autoclave centrifuge, anaerobic incubators and jars, vacuum pumps, PH meters, membrane filtration equipment, chromatographic instruments, flamephotometer, spectrum photometers, and colorimeters design and calibration. Principles of fluorescence, phosphorescence, luminescence and application. Nephelometry, Principles and applications of atomic absorption spectrum scope and atomic fluorescence. Continuous flow analysis and discrete analyzers. Scintillatron and ionization counters-design, use and standardization. Principles and uses of electrophoresis pack, coulter counter and staining machines. Principles and uses of microtones including cryostat and ultramicrotomes. Microtome knives, strops and hones. Automatic knives sharpeners.

Automatic tissue processing machines and timing discs. Paraffin section-mounting baths (water baths). Vacuum embedding phase contract and electron microscopes.

MLS 323 Laboratory Posting I1 3 Units.

Posting of students to all sections of job training under the supervision of qualified medical laboratory scientists. Close scoring of performance data cords. Evaluation. Scintillation and ionization counters–design use and standardization photo micrographic and autoradiographic equipment. Principles and uses of electrophoresis pack, coulter counter and staining machines. Principles and uses of microtomes including crytostat and ultramicrotomes. Microtome knives, strops and hones. Automatic knives sharpeners, Automatic tissue processing machines and timing discs. Paraffin section mounting baths (water baths). Vacuum embedding chambers. Fluorescent, phase contrast and electron microscopes.

MLS 324 Lab. Management and Organization 2 Units.

Personnel and administrative management Medical Laboratory design, planning and organization. Laboratory management account and budgeting. Ordering, stock card indexing and storage. Occupational hazards and laboratory safety precautions. First aid in laboratory accidents.

PIO 331 Autonomic Nervous System (3 units.)

Spinal cord–ascending, descending and motor cortex. Control of posture and movement. The reticular activating system, sleep, neural centers regulating visceral functions. Neurophysiological basis of instinctive behavior, conditioned relexes, learning and temperature regulation. Sympathetic and parasympathetic pathways. Role in the various systems especially cardiovascular, respiratory and gastrointestinal.

BCH 322 Instrumental Method Of Analysis In Biochemistry Practical (1unit)

BCH 318 Functional Biochemistry (3 units.)

Endocrinology:  Structure, function and molecular mechanism of action of steroid, thyroid and polypeptide hormones. Hormonal deficiency diseases and their defection.

Methods of hormonal assay;

Linborn errors of metabolism:  Molecular basis of G-6-pD metabolic diseases. Biochemical derangement in deficiency, sickle cell anemia, glycogen storage diseases etc. Xenobiotics and forensic biochemistry: Metabolism of foreign compounds. Induction of microsomal enzymes and drug resistance. Medico-legal-blood, urine and sweat test. Recent developments in forensic techniques. Neurochemistry:  The neuron structure, composition and metabolism, neurohormonal regulatory and mechanisms. Metablic antagonism in neurochemistry.

MCB 311 General Microbiology. (3 units.)

The kingdom protista organizational differences in eukaryotic cells. Classification and nomenclature of microorganisms. Bacterial cell form, structure, nutrition, reproduction and metabolism. Bacterial genetics. A typical prokaryotic cell-viruses Eucaryotic microorganism-fungi. Microbial control, microbes in food, water and environment. Bacterial infectional pathogenic microbiology. Laboratory animals, types of breeding and uses.

IMM 321 Immunology 1 (3 Units).

Molecular basis of immune reactions antigens and the immune response. Fate of antigen. Immunoglobin-structure and function, general organization and assembly, classification, antigen-antibody interactions. Phagocytic cells, chemotaxis and effector function of macrophages and granulocytes. The complement system and complement abnormalities, innate immunity factors affecting e.g. age species specific anatomical factors (skin membranes) nutrition,  hormones acquired immunity active and passive factors affecting acquired immunity. Lymphoproliferative organs and their functions in immune responses. Diagnostic serological tests for assessing humoral immunity. Tissue and organ transplantation HLA system. Transplantation and pregnancy.

CSC 321 Computer Applications 2 Units.

Computer programming. Programme package, design and output, data analysis and interpretation. Computer hardware and software. Computer applications in medical laboratory sciences, clinical and preventive medicine information storage and retrieval, statistical analysis, and manipulation practical exercises.

PHM 311 Pharmacology 1 (What is the Unit. Not seen in the course outline)

Scope of pharmacology, origin and sources of drugs, routes of administration of drugs. Pharmcokinetics, absorption of drugs, excretion, biotransformation. Structure activity relationship. Mode of action of drugs. Types of drug action. Drug action in man-compliance, individual variations.

Presence of other drugs, genetic effects, tolerance and techyphylaxis, adverse drug reactions. Drug dependence and drug interaction.

PHM 321 Pharmacology Ii 3 Units.

Antimicrobial pharmacology, chemotherapeutic agents, anti tabolite base analogues, mitotic inhibitors, base analogues, mitotic inhibioties, enzymes, alkylating agents and hormones. Radiation therapy, immunatherapy and cancer therapy. Synthesis and physiology of neurotransmitters. Biochemical basis of depression, narcotics mechanism of action. Fluorescent radio and chromatographic methods in drug studies. Methods in drug studies. Methods of evaluation of toxins mutagens and carcinogens.

STA 314 Biostatistics (3 units.)

Aims, characteristics and application of biostatistics in clinical and preventive medicine. Statistical data in biomedical series–samples, population variables, frequency distribution, vital and descriptive statistics, measurement of central tendencies mean, median, mode, dispersion, standard derivation and co-efficient of variation. Collection and presentation of data probability distribution. Hypothetical tests of statistical significance. Analysis of variance. Regression and correction. Experimental designs and clinical trials.

PTH 321 General Pathology (3 Units).

Introduction-ancient, traditional and modern concept of diseases and their causes. The normal cell and cellular basis of disease. Tissues and cellular injury, Reaction to cellular inflammation, Necrosis, healing and repair. Disturbances and genetic disorders, pigmentary disturbances. Calcification and amyloidosis. Disorders of nutrition.

MLS 419 Laboratory Posting 111 (3 Units)  

Intensive posting to all sections of clinical laboratories for on the job training under the supervision of qualified Medical Laboratory Scientist. Close scoring of performance data cards evaluation.

MLS 422 Counseling Skills (3 units) 

Definition of Counseling, care and Support, Types of Counseling pre test, Post test, preventive 1 or 2, crisis, problem solving, decision making couple, spiritual and pastoral; who needs counseling, prospects/benefits of counseling, constraints in Counseling, rewarding listening skills preventing and managing conflicts; Genetic counseling including sickle cell trait in marriage etc. case studies; the way forward.

CPY 411 Basic Chemical Pathology (3 Units)

Normal contents of body compartments and their measurements sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, glucose, plasma and bonates. Estimation of blood and urine glucose, plasma and serum proteins, water balance, sodium and chloride balance. Clinical disorders of water depletion, water excess, sodium excess, recognition of combined sodium and water depletion. Treatment of water and electrolyte imbalance in infants. Potassium-normal values, hyperkalaemia. Magnesium, cation exchange resin therapy, maintenance of normal blood pH.

Metabolic disturbances of acid-base balance. Metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis. Metabolic and respiratory alkalosis, investigation of disturbances of acid base equilibrium. Blood chemistry in bone disease. Disorders of bone formation osteoporosis, osteomalacia, hyperparathyroidism. Biochemical analysis of faeces.

CPY 413 Chemical Pathology 1 (3 Units) 

Principles of analytical techniques in clinical chemistry devising new techniques, biological traits and tests for acceptability. Solid / Dry phase chemistry, dipstick technology, thin film technology immobilized enzymes analytical techniques for qualitative and quantitative determination of enzymes, hormones, proteins, lipids, trace elements, non-protein nitrogen, volumetric analysis-partition, absorption, gel filtrations, iron exchange and gas liquid chromatography. Electrochemical analysis principles of potentiometric analysis. Fractionation of proteins fractional precipitation (salting out), chromatographic and electrophoretic procedures. Protein precipitants mode of action and choice in anylstical procedures.

MMB 430 Medical Microbiology I (3 Units) 

Principles of bacterial taxonomy, biochemical and serological basis of identification of bacteria of medical importance. The phylogenic cocci (Staph, Strept, Pneumocci, Neisseriae). The entero-bacteriacaea-coliforms, gastro-enteritis and food plsoning, salmonella, shigellosis, vibrio cholera, pseudomonas, bacteriodes etc. the haemophilic bacilli (haemophilus, Brucellae, Yersinia, Bordetella etc). Anaerobic spore formers-Aerobic spore formers. (Bacillus anthracis, Clostridia). The Spirochaetes, the Mycobacteria, Actinomycetes, Corynbacteriae, Rickettsiae, Chlamydae, Mycopasma, L-Forms, Listeria, Erysipelothrix, Bartonlla etc. Generla pathology, epidemiology features, diagnosis, control and theraph. Aseptic collection of clinical specimens. Supportive investigations-skin tests etc to aid diagnosis. Rapid techniques in medical microbiology.

MMB 432 Basic Parastitology/Medical  Entomology     (2 units) 

Classification and life cycle of protozoan– the amoebas, ciliates, flagellates and sporozoans. Life cycle and pathogenicity of the nematodes ascaris, strongyloides, Trichuris guinea worm, hookworms, trichinelia, Enterobius etc. life cycle and pathogenicity of cestodes.  Life cycle and pathogenicity of the trematodses schistosomes, fasciola, paragonismus etc. methods of demonstration of parasites in blood, faeces vagina, urine, urethra, pus from lungs and liver, skin snip etc. mechanisms of their diseases production. Epidemiology and control of parasitic diseases. Arthropods of medical importance the crustaceans, arachnidan, hexapoda, myasis etc, their biology life cycles and control.

MMB 436 Virology 1 (2 Units) 

Morphology and life cycle of viruses. Homenclature and classification various methods. Reproduction, resistance, pathology, collection of clinical specimens for viral culture. Culture methods for isolation viruses, purification, immunity and laboratory diagnosis of viral infections haemaelutination test, CFT, neutralization tests. Systematic study of viral diseases. Interferon, immunotherapy and chemotherapy in viral infections, inclusion bodies and cytopathic effects. Viral/Host interactions and identifications. Viral vaccines and immunoprophylaxis.

MMB 438 Basic Bacteriology/Medical Mycology (3 Units) 2 Units

Methods for the demonstration of bacterial forms and structure. Design and preparation of culture media. Sterilization and other methods of bacterial control. Asceptic procedures and methods for pure culture isolation. Procedures for receiving, handling and processing of clinical specimens. Antibiotic assay, sensitivity tests and chemotherapy, plate reading. Principles and techniques of anaerobic bacteriology. Methods of total and viable counts. Stock culture preservation. Quality control of culture and media. Record keeping in bacteriology laboratory. Staining techniques for spores, capsules and negative staining procedure. Wet preparation, motility tests. Introductory mycology.

HAE 421 Basic Haematology (3 Units)

Origin, development, structure and function of blood cells, synthesis and breakdown of haemoglobins; visual and electronic cell counting procedures. Absolute values, iron, vitamin B12 and folate metabolism. Nutritional anaemias and their investigations. Introduction to haematasis, principles and mode of action of common anticoagulan’s simple tests used in blood coagulation investigations. Haemochromatosis and related storage disorders.

HAE 424 Basic Blood Group Serology (3 Credit Units) 3 Units

ABO and rhesus blood groups inheritance, biosynthesis, distribution and genetic theory. Blood grouping techniques principles, advantages, and disadvantages. Antisera, lections and enzymes including preparation and standardization.

Anticoagulants used in BCS ACD, CPD – A, etc. modes of action and side effects. MRC blood bottles and plastic bags advantages and disadvantages. Blood donor screening, preparation and blood and products-cryoprecipitate, platelet rich plasma, packed cells, fresh frozen plasma, fibrinogen, WBC etc. blood compatibility testing. Investigation of transfusion reactions. Blood group specific substances neutralization reactions. Blood banking organization, structures, facilities and records. Quality assurance physical chemical and reagent AHG DCT and ICT procedures.

HAE 425 Haematology 1 (3 Units)  

Haemoglobinapathy I & II to include red cell membrane haemoglobin, and enzyme abnormalities. Hereditary defects of RBC metabolism. Acquired haemolytic anaemias and their investigation. Leucocytes, Physiology, Kinetics and function. Leucocytosis and leucopoenia, Leukaemias classifications including the FAB mode, features and Laboratory management. Cytochemical procedures, Myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. Preparation and cytology of blood and bone marrow films in heath and disease. Platelets Structure, Physiology and functions. Tests for plateslets, vascular integrity, inhibitors fibrinolytic activity etc. haemorrhagic disorders. Control of anticoagulant therapy, haemiphillia states.

PTH 444 Histopathology 1 (3 Units) 

Principles of Histochemcial methods. DNA demonstration by Feulgen techniques, silver impregnatin methods. PAS, Manson trichrome. Iron impregnation methods, Cyto-screening and slide reporting. Tissue culture techniques, Genes and genetic codes. Chromaffin tissues, Schmols, Diazo and Parl’s reaction. Other histochemical procedures. Enzyme histochemistry Acid and Alkaline phosphases, Oxidative, Enzymes, Quality assurance and automation in Histopathology Laboratory.

PTH 445 Basic Histopathology (3 Units)

Fixation, autolysins, bacterial decomposition, effects of fixation, common fixing agents and their uses. Secondary fixation pigments, decalcification aims and application, decalcifying agents, tests for checking completing of decalcification. Dehydration, clearing and infiltration/embedding. Frozen and celloidion sections, embedding media. Basic histology of organs. Tissue sectioning procedures and slide preparation. Staining procedures. Storage of blocks, museum techniques colour restoration, mounting in museum jars, gross appearance of diseased organs in routine post mortem. Slide examination to illustrate normal and abnormal features common tumours etc.

IMM 457 Immunology 11 (2 Units.)

Cell mediated immunological reactions. Hypersensitivity reactions, immunological tolerance, autoimmunity and autoimmune diseases. Immunsuppression and immunodeficiency diseases. Immunity and infections. Tumour immunology. Immune reactions in tissue damage. Immune complex diseases. Diagnostic tests of assessing cellular immune functions. Principles of fractionation procedures. Vaccination and immunization.


CPY 500 Project (6 Units)  

A supervised research project on an approved topic to be undertaken by each student for partial fulfillment of the B.MLS degree requirements. Assessment of the project should be by both oral defense and grading of the project content.

CPY 510 Research Methodology  (2 Units)  

Introduction to research methodology collection of literature review articles. Problem definition sampling techniques experimental designs of medical and public health studies. Questionnaire design and data collection analysis. The role of research in health and social welfare, the need of institutional and governmental ethical clearance for some research projects. Research projects. Art of scholarly publications.

CPY 511 Chemical Pathology II (2 Units)

Physiology of the pancreas and the alimentary canal. Pancreatic function tests to include secretion and pancreozymin stimulation tests. Glucose tolerance test, insulin sensitivity test, estimation of amylase. Estimation of the activity of trypsin in duodenal contents, gastric function tests to include HCL secretions, histamine and augmented histamine tests. Fractional and tubeless test meals. Intestinal absorption test, vitamin absorption test, the congo red test for amyloidosis and faecal fat estimations. Diseases of the muscle. Lipidaemias, hyper and hypolipo prteinemia-definition, causes and investigation, porphyria and porphyrinuria, Definition, causes, consequences and investigation of some inborn-errors of metabolism-phenyiketonuria, galactosaemia, fructose intolerance, albinism, alkaptonuria, aminoacidrias, causes and investigation.

CPY 512 Clinical Endorcrinology (2 Units)  

Physiology of the thyroid glands, adrenocorticotriphic hormone and adrenal glands, Mechanism of control and laboratory assessments. Disorders of the endocrine glands and methods of laboratory assessment. The biochemical secretions of the gland, their major metabolites and laboratory methods investigation. Parathyroid hormones, calcium and phosophorus metabolism, disorders of the bone. Vitamin D, calitonin, insulin and glucagons. Blood glucose, homeostasis. Diabetes, Laboratory disagnosis and Biochemical sequelae.

CPY 513 Chemical Pathology I11 (3 Units) 

Physiology of the kidney, renal clearance and glomerular filtration rate. Renal plasma flow, maximal tubular excretory and reabssorptive capacities. Urea clearance, Creatinine and insulin clearance. Concentration and dilution tests. Impairment of renal function. Renal failures, Azotaemia, anuria, sodium loss in renal disease.

The liver: anatomy and physiology, biosynthesis of bilirubin excretion of bile pigments. Jaundice: urine and blood urea and ammonia urinalysis. Paraproteinaemia, Bence jones proteinura and significance. Portphyrias causes, symptoms and laboratory investigation of porphyrinaemia. Definition causes consequences and investigation of some inborn-errors of metabolism-phenyiketonuria, galactosaemia, fructose intolerance, albinism, alkaptonuria, aminoacidurias, causes and investigation of nutritional disorders.

CPY 514 Clinical Vitaminology And Toxicology (2 Units) 

Chemistry and metabolic functions of water and fat soluble vitamins, their deficiency states and physiological significance. Trace elements, bioavailability functions and interaction. Practical and theoretical aspects of poisoning. Estimation of blood alcohol. Detection of barbiturates, cocaine, heroine, opium, phenothiazines, methaqualone etc. in urine, sweat, blood aspirates. Estimation of blood salicylates, sulphonamides, blood ammonia, cyanide, oxygen, carbon dioxide and PH.

CPY 515 Clinical Enzymology (2 Units) 

Metabolic processes reaction kinetics, activation and repression phenomena. Enzyme induction, inhibition, purification and specificity, enzyme activity and knetic studies. Cenzymes, isoenzymes, enzymes of clinical diagnostic importance.

CPY 516 Advanced Chemical Pathology Techniques (3 Units)

Principles and applications of various chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques including high-pressure liquid chromatography. Measurement of radioactivity application, separation and analysis of body fluid constituents. Membrane separation, dialysis, electrodialysis, ultracentrifugation and ultrafiltraction. Immunological methods RIA, ELISA, counter immunoelectrophoresis, receptor assays. Cell cloning, preparation

of monoclonal antibodies. Fluorescent antibody technique, competitive protein binding methods. Electrochemistry: Basic concepts involving animal experiments, micro and ultramincro analysis. Gasometric analysis, molecular and atomic absorption, emission fluorescent, UV, visible and infer-red spectrophotometry. Automation and computer applications in clinical biochemistry laboratory, quality assurances. Safety and biohazards equipment care and maintenance. Elements of biotechnology.

CPY 517                Lab Posting           6 units

CPY  518               Seminar                 2 units


MMB 500 Project (6 Units)  

A supervised research project on an approved topic to be undertaken by each student for partial fulfillment of the B.MLS degree requirements. Assessment of the project should be by both oral defense and grading of the project content.

MMB 530 Research Methodology  (2 Units)  

Introduction to research methodology collection of literature review articles. Problem definition sampling techniques experimental designs of medical and public health studies. Questionnaire design and data collection analysis. The role of research in health and social welfare, the need of institutional and governmental ethical clearance for some research projects. Research projects. Art of scholarly publications

MMB 531 Medical Microbiology Ii (2 Units) 

Principles of bacterial infection and pathogenesis. Biological and clinical basis of infectious diseases, clinical and diagnostic micrological considerations of diseases of upper respiratory. Laower respiratory, genitourinary and intestinal tracts, central nervous system, cutaneous, and vascular and other systemic organs. Definition, assessment, epidemiology and control of hospital infections.

MMB 532 Medical Virology Ii (3 Units) 

Pathogenesis, immunology, epidemiology and management of viruses of medical importance psittacosis group, rickettsiae, picornaviruses, arbovirses, herpesvirvuses, myxoviruses, poxviruses, oncogenic viruses.

MMB 533 Advanced Parasitology/Epidemiology (2 Units)

Epidemiological study of protozoa and helminthic infections in rural communities. Advanced methods for differential diagnosis of parasitic immunology of parasitic infections. Definitions and principles of epidemiology, methods and uses of epidemiological studies. Epidemiology and control of common communicable and non communicable diseases.

MMB 535 Public Health Microbiology (3 Units)  

General principles of microbial disease transmission waterborne, airborne, food borne, arthropod-borne and contagious disease. Principles and techniques for water treatment. Waste water disposal preventive measures in the control of bacterial, parasitic and viral infections, vaccines and immunization, immunization programme and schedule (EPI).

MMB 537 Medical Mycology (2 Units)

Biology of fungi:  nomenclature, classification, characteristics and growth requirements of fungi, Epidemiology pathogenesis and control of fungi infections. Systemic mycoses crytococcosis, blastomycoses, histoplamosis, coccidiomycoses, Opportunistic mycoses-candidiasis, phycomycoses, aspergilloses etc. subcutaneous mycoses-maduromycoses, sporotrichoses, chromoblastomycosis etc. cutaneous mycoses-dermatophytoses, superficial mycoses. Actinomycoses, mycotozins, laboratory diagnosis of fungi infections.

MMB  538  Seminar                           2 units 

MMB 539 Lab Posting       6 units


HAE 500 Project (6 Units)  

A supervised research project on an approved topic to be undertaken by each student for partial fulfillment of the B.MLS degree requirements. Assessment of the project should be by both oral defense and grading of the project content.

HAE 520 Research Methodology  (2 Units)  

Introduction to research methodology collection of literature review articles. Problem definition sampling techniques experimental designs of medical and public health studies. Questionnaire design and data collection analysis. The role of research in health and social welfare, the need of institutional and governmental ethical clearance for some research projects. Research projects. Art of scholarly publications.

HAE 521 Haematology II (2 Units)  

Identification of blood parasites. The spleen and splenomegaly syndromes. Drugs, chemicals and the blood, Blood in infancy childhood and pregnancy, Heredity and blood disorders, Blood in microbial infection. Anemia in community classification, mechanism and laboratory investigations in immunohaematological disorders. Autoimmune haemolytic anaemias, thrombocytopaenia, leucopoenia, systemic and disseminated lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, etc. myelomatodis and other paraproteinaemias.

HAE 522 Cytogenetics (3 Units)  

Sex chromosome, in-activation of e-xhromosomes. Theory and practice of clinical cytogenetics, Mosaicism, mapping of autosomes and x-chromosomes. DNA Synthesis. Genes in kindred segregation, dominant and recessive inheritance x-linked inheritance, Independent assortment, linkage and association allelism, Genes and the individual. Gene variation and interaction. Chimeras, Genes in families and population. Selection, pedigree analysis, mutation and mutagens. Hardy Weinberg equation; genetic drift and inbreeding, methods of cytognetic analysis including staining. Chromosome abnormalities Trisomy, monosomy, Translocation, non-disjunction, deletion, duplication, isochromosomes, Clones, Slide reporting.

HAE 523 Blood Group Serology 1 (3 Units) 

Genotyping in Rh Blood Group. Other blood groups NNS, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, Lewis, P.I etc. Haemolotic disease of the Newborn types, aetiology, antenatal and postnatal management. Blood group serology in patenity dispute. Haemolsin titration. Absorption and Elution Techniques, Indicatoins and complications of blood transfusion. Red cell survival tests Radioisotope and differential agglutination methods. Screening of donor for infective agents. HIV, HBV, Malaria, Tryansosomes, Syphilis etc. Anomalous results in blood grouping. False positive and negative results in compatibility testing. Preparation and standardization of AHG.

HAE 524 Advanced Haematology Techinques (3 Units) 

Principles and techniques of isoelectric focusing. Protein separation by column chromatography, Finger printing principles and techniques. Purification of proteins/enzymes. Ultracentrifugation and molecular weight determination, Culture of blood cells and parasites. Leucocyte typing Platelet aggregation principles and techniques. Isotpe labeling techniques. Measurement of radioactivity, Fluorescent antibody techniques, radio-immunoeletrophoresis, Competitive protein binding, Electrophoresis Starch, Agar gel and polyacrilamide gel, Principles of polymerase.

HAE  525 Blood Group Serology  II  (2 units)

HAE 527 Lab Posting                         6 units

HAE 528 Seminar                               2 units


PTH 500 Project (6 Units)  

A supervised research project on an approved topic to be undertaken by each student for partial fulfillment of the B.MLS degree requirements. Assessment of the project should be by both oral defense and grading of the project content.

PTH 540 Research Methodology (2 Units)  

Introduction to research methodology collection of literature review articles. Problem definition sampling techniques experimental designs of medical and public health studies. Questionnaire design and data collection analysis. The role of research in health and social welfare, the need of institutional and governmental ethical clearance for some research projects. Research projects. Art of scholarly publications.

PTH 541 Histopathology I1 (2 Unitys)

Cytology of normal cells, Review of histology of the following organs Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Gastrointestinal, Urogenital, Neuro-histology and histology of the following: - endocrine glands pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, adrenal, ovary and testis. Cytology of epithelial cells, atypical and malignant cells.

PTH 543 Histopathology I11 (3 Units) 

Systemic pathology; heart–hypertensive, heart-disease heart failure and cardiomyopathties. Respiratory Tuberculosis, pneumonia, renal nephropathy associated the infestations and infections, glomerulonephirits.

Lymphoreticular Malignant lymphomas (non-hodgkins & Hodgkins lymphoma, burkitts). Idiopathic Tropical splenomegaly syndrome.

Gastrointestinal tract – Cancers of the mouth, esophagus, intestines and stomach.

Liver – Hepatitis, Cirrhosis, Primary Liver cell carcinoma

Female Reproductive Organs – Pelvic inflammatory disease.

Cancer – Cervical, trophoblastic, ovarian.

Skin – Leprosy, kaposis sarcoma.

nutritional – Protein energy malnutrition. Slide reporting.

PTH 544 Advanced Histopathology Techniques / Embalmment (4 Units)

Fluorescent Microtechniques. Autoradiogrphy principles and techniques. Ultromicrotomy, Microincineration, principles of photography macro and misrophotography. Preparation of stained smears and specimen for microphotography and microphotography respectively. Election microscopy preparation of materials and embedding reagents uses. Toxicity of some reagents used in election microscopy. Embalmment techniques and demonstrations.

PTH 545 Exfoliative Cytology (2 Units) 

Theory and practice of clinical cytogenetics. Chromosome analysis, structure, organization and staining techniques. Chromosomes in man. Normal karyotype and chromosomal abnormalities. Mosaicism, trisomy, monosomy, translocation. Klinefelers.

PTH 546 Museum Techniques (3 Units) 

Preparation and Museum mounting of specimens. Techniques of museum display. Organization of a Medical Museum. Methods of colour maintenance. Fixation and storage of museum specimens. Special museum techniques e.g. Dawson’s method.

PTH 548                Seminar                 2 units

PTH 549                Lab Posting           6 units


PME 500 Project (6 units)

PME 551 General Parasitology  I  (2 Units).

Taxonomy of Parasites, Rules and Systems of classifying and naming of Parasites.

Evolution of Parasites and their relationships with vectors and hosts, Hosts of parasites. Factors influencing the transmission dynamics of major tropical parasites including the position of their hosts in the bionomic. The Epidemeology of parasitic infections, prevalence, morbidity and mortality in man. The economics of parasitic infections.

PME 553 Medical Entomology  I  (2 Units)

Diseases causing arthropods (including Myiasis) – Classification, Habitats, Life cycle, Transmission and Control. Arthropods as intermediate hosts and vectors of parasites. Insecticide resistance.

PME 555 Helminthology (2 units)

Helminths of medical importance in the world with emphasis to West Africa and particularly Nigeria.

PME 557 Parasitic Protozoa (1 units)

Parasitic amoeba, flagellales and amaeboflagellates of medical importance, Haematozenus, Cytonzoon, Microsporeans of medical importance. Emphasis on parasites involved in zoonoses.

PME 552 General Parasitology  II (2 Units).

Parasitic Zoonosis and relevance to public health planning. Secio-economics, cultural and other factors which influence the transmission of zoonosis in tropical communities. Control measures including health education. Economic importance of zoonotic infections.

PME 554 Epidemiology And Transmission of Parasites (2 Units).

Parasite ecology, environmental factors influencing parasite transmission, statistical methods and Epidemiology of parasistes, integrated control of tropical parasitic diseases.

PME 556 Medical Entomology II   (2 Units)

Systemic and bionomic of insects of medical importance, vectors and diseases, methods of vector control especially mosquitoes and malaria eradication.

PME 558 Insect Anatomy And Physiology   (1 Unit)

Detailed study of Taxonomy and Bionomic of major insect orders with particular reference to tropical/sub-tropical species of agricultural, medical and veterinary importance.

Pesticide classification, formulation and mode of action. Pest management.

PME 552               Seminar                 2 units


IMM 500 Project (6 units)

IMM 571 Immunologic Laboratory (  Units).

Laboratory Methods for detection of antigens and antibodies



Immunochemical and Physiochemical


Immunolistochemical techniques


Complement Function

Complement Fixation.

Laboratory Methods of Detecting Cellular Unirune function

Delayed hypersensitivity skin test

Lymphocyte actuation (… and unlufulation)

Assay for Human T&B lymphocytes

Clinical application of B & T cells assays

Neutrophils function (test for inutility, recognition, ingestion, degranulation, centacellular killing).

IMM 573 Molecular Cell-Biology And Biotechnology (2 Units).

- Cell theory, cutina of living cells, evolutionary origin of cell types, fundamental differences between no. and Eukaryotes, importance of archeac for biotechnology.

- Clinical components of cells, molecules of life / proteins, unclear acid,  lipids, KH), infact of rec. proteins, - proteins folding for biotech, use of fluorescent proteins as biosensors, monoclonal antibodies, principles of hybridization, PCR, DNA-Chips.

- The nuclear and molecular constituents, DNA replication and recombination, genome organization, principles of recombinant gene technology.

- From genes to proteins, gene expression, molecular anatomy of genes, regulation of gene activity, reporter genes.

- Eukaryotic cell organizations and sub-cellular structures.

- Cytoskeleton, extra-cellular matrix, cell culture.

- Cell cycle and growth regulation and diseases.

- Structure and function of biomenbianes, role of reception.

- Integrative and afecialized cellular events; intracellular signal transduction.

IMM 575 Molecular Methods In Microbiology (2 Units).

- Coexistence of bacteria in complex communities in nature in as well as in manmade eco-systems.

- Natural and manmade environments and unusual ecological niches of bacteria.

- The VRNA approach.

- Understanding and molecular basis of phylogenetic tees of bacteria (bact. Ecology).

- Molecular methods to analyze uncultivable bacteria.

- Existence growth and analysis of structure of biofilms.

- DNA fingerprinting techniques in molecular ecology.

- Microscopic analysis of bacteria.

- Fluorescence – in – siter hybridizations.

- PCR reactions and analysis of mixed PCR products.

IMM 572 Clinical Immunology (2 Units).

- Immunodeficiency diseases

- Rheumatoid diseases

- Allergic diseases

- Gastro -inlostinal and livers diseases

- Candial and pulmonary diseases

- Renal diseases

- Dermatological

- Infectious diseases

- Endocrine diseases

- Infectious disease

- Parasitic disease

IMM 574 Immunohaematology  (2 Units).

- White blood cells disorders  

a) chronic hydrogenous leukemia  

b) chronic lymphocytic leukemia  

c) leukaemia reticuloendothelosis

lymphoreticular Disorders


- Rd Cell disorder

- Immune hemolytic anemia  

a) autoimmune hemolytic anemia  

b) cold agglutinin syndromes  

c) drug induced immune hemolytic anemia  

d) paroxysmal cold hemoglobinurea

- Plate disorders

- Iron marrow transplants

- Hemostatic disorders

- Blood replacement therapy

IMM 576 Immunochemistry (2 Units).

Adaptive and innate immunity

- Cells involved in the immune response

- Major histocompatibiltiy complex

- Antigen – antibody reactions

- The antibody response

- The generation of antibody diversity

- Cell-mediated immunity

- Synthesis of immunogens

- Production of mono and polydonal of antibodies

- Preparation of antibody fragments

- Purification of antibodies and their fragments

- Labeling of antibodies with radioactive isotopes, dyes and enzymes.

- Analytical methods which use antibodies (e.g. Immunoassays, western blotting).

- Affinity chromatography

- Immunohistochemestry.


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